atomic structure of hydrogen

Click here to sign in with Copyright © 1996-2012 Yinon Bentor. Hydrogen Atomic Structure . All Rights Reserved. The hydrogen atom has a nucleus consisting of a proton bearing one unit of positive electrical charge; an electron, bearing one unit of negative electrical charge, is also associated with this nucleus. Helium: The atomic number of helium is 2. Elements are shown from atomic number 1 (hydrogen) up to 94 (plutonium). By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy    Metalloids This can be determined using the atomic number and the mass number of the element (see the concept on atomic … Compounds with the same molecular formulae but different structural formulae. A water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Both are gases and have a high abundance in the universe. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. While the work offers an important new window into understanding the general properties of hydrogen, it also offers tantalizing hints at potentially revolutionary new materials. 3.    Non-Metals With this scale, protons and neutrons have masses that are close to, but not precisely, 1 u each (there are 6.022 x 10 23 u in 1 gram This number is known as Avogadro’s number, N, and one of the ways this number can be calculated is discussed below). Atomic Number: 7 Atomic Mass: 14.00674 amu Melting Point:-209.9 °C (63.250008 K, -345.81998 °F) Boiling Point:-195.8 °C (77.35 K, -320.44 °F) Number of Protons/Electrons: 7 Number of Neutrons: 7 Classification: Non-metal Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Density @ 293 K: 1.2506 g/cm 3 Color: colorless Atomic Structure "Diamonds are polished with diamond powder, and that can gouge out carbon from the surface," Silvera said. Helium: The atomic weight of helium is 4.002602 amu. The atomic mass unit (amu) is defined as exactly one-twelfth the mass of a carbon atom that has six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus. Hence we can write: SCH4U1 Atomic Structure Worksheet 1. a) What is the ground state of a hydrogen atom? Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. At those extreme pressures, Silvera explained, solid molecular hydrogen -which consists of molecules on the lattice sites of the solid - breaks down, and the tightly bound molecules dissociate to transforms into atomic hydrogen, which is a metal. "That would easily allow you to explore the outer planets," Silvera said. 2. In its lowest energy form, the electron occupies the 1s orbital, spherically symmetrical around the hydrogen nucleus.  Comments Get weekly and/or daily updates delivered to your inbox. When two hydrogen atoms are bound to an oxygen atom, the outer electron shell of oxygen is filled. 2. But rather than natural diamond, Silvera and Dias used two small pieces of carefully polished synthetic diamond which were then treated to make them even tougher and then mounted opposite each other in a device known as a diamond anvil cell. In 1914, Niels Bohr obtained the spectral frequencies of the hydrogen atom after making a number of simplifying assumptions. Nearly a century after it was theorized, Harvard scientists have succeeded in creating the rarest - and potentially one of the most valuable - materials on the planet. The electron configuration of hydrogen is given as 1s 1. agreement. "This is the holy grail of high-pressure physics," Silvera said. Atomic Structure (General questions) Your feedback on these self-help problems is … The solution to the Schrödinger equation for hydrogen is analytical.    Atomic Number According to Niels Bohr, what does “n” stand for? Molecules of Life P1, P2, M1 P1: Describe the structure of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen and relate these to the structure of biological molecules M1: Explain the relevance of the electronic configuration of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen Hydrogen. The solution, he said, was to use a reactive ion etching process to shave a tiny layer - just five microns thick, or about one-tenth of a human hair - from the diamond's surface.    Number of Neutrons … www.njctl.org Chemistry Atomic Structure Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. The subatomic proton is a hydrogen atom, but a positively charged one That structure is, for diagram structure, a circle. Among the holy grails of physics, a room temperature superconductor, Dias said, could radically change our transportation system, making magnetic levitation of high-speed trains possible, as well as making electric cars more efficient and improving the performance of many electronic devices. Understanding whether the material is stable is important, Silvera said, because predictions suggest metallic hydrogen could act as a superconductor at room temperatures. Atomic Structure (General questions) Your feedback on these self-help problems is appreciated. The diamonds were then coated with a thin layer of alumina to prevent the hydrogen from diffusing into their crystal structure and embrittling them. - Hydrogen has the symbol H. - With the atomic number one, there is one proton in the nucleus and one electron orbiting the nucleus of a normal (electrically neutral) hydrogen atom. The hydrogen atom wavefunctions, \(\psi (r, \theta , \phi )\), are called atomic orbitals. A radio station broadcasts at a frequency of What is the 05.4 MHz (FM 105.4). Hydrogen: Hydrogen is a chemical element having the atomic number 1 and is represented by the symbol H. Atomic Number. To create the new material, Silvera and Dias turned to one of the hardest materials on Earth - diamond. These assumptions, the cornerstones of the Bohr model, were not fully correct but did yield the correct energy answers. Use of this web site is restricted by this site's license Hydrogen is very flammable and burns with an invisible flame. "That would be revolutionary," he said. The atomic structure of an element refers to the constitution of its nucleus and the arrangement of the electrons around it. After more than four decades of work on metallic hydrogen, and nearly a century after it was first theorized, seeing the material for the first time, Silvera said, was thrilling. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. If there are more electrons than protons, the ion has a negative charge and is called an anion. The hydrogen atom consists of a single negatively charged electron that moves about a positively charged proton (Figure 8.2.1). Answers : The atomic number of hydrogen is 1 (count the protons). Hydrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 1 which means there are 1 protons and 1 electrons in the atomic structure.The chemical symbol for Hydrogen is H. With a standard atomic weight of circa 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. The force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron provides a centripetal force to the electron to move in a circular orbit. "It was really exciting," he said. b) What is an excited state of a hydrogen atom? This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties. of alpha and Polonium after decay of Radon. We do not guarantee individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence. Number of Energy Levels: 1: First Energy Level: 1 . c) How is a hydrogen atom in the ground state transformed into a hydrogen atom in the excited state? its the number of atoms multiplied by 2 atoms of the same element will have the same atomic … Using wavelengths emitted from a hydrogen atom, a student finds that the value of "Ranga was running the experiment, and we thought we might get there, but when he called me and said, 'The sample is shining,' I went running down there, and it was metallic hydrogen. These notes are very helpful to prepare Modern Physics for BSc and are in accordance with paper pattern of Punjab University-Lahore, GCU-Lahore, GCU-Faislabad, University of Sargodha-Sargodha and all other universities of Punjab and Pakistan. part may be reproduced without the written permission. There are also Auger electrons, not only characteristic X-rays Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. The key difference between hydrogen and helium is that hydrogen is a diatomic gas, while helium is a monatomic gas.. Hydrogen and helium are the first two elements in the periodic table. Crystallographic representation of a material, two sources seem very d, Science X Daily and the Weekly Email Newsletter are free features that allow you to receive your favorite sci-tech news updates in your email inbox. Neither your address nor the recipient's address will be used for any other purpose. This page was created by Yinon Bentor. At those extreme pressures, Silvera explained, solid molecular hydrogen -which consists of molecules on the lattice sites of the solid - breaks down, and the …    Noble Gases Hydrogen is used in petrol and diesel cars, the burning of fuel produce carbon dioxide and water. Spacecraft Juno nears planet orbit, but Harvard team may already have predicted part of what it will find, science.sciencemag.org/lookup/ … 1126/science.aal1579, Researchers find Mars has a Chandler wobble, Evidence of huntsman spider creating leaf trap for a frog found in Madagascar, Self‐folding 3-D photosensitive graphene architectures, Eight binary millisecond pulsars examined by researchers, Experiments with bifluoride ions show evidence of hybrid bonds, Spin orbit coupling/Filling order/Nucleus, Question about final k.e. A helium atom consists of a nucleus containing two positively charged protons and two neutrons, encircled by two orbiting electrons which carry a … "We would be able to put rockets into orbit with only one stage, versus two, and could send up larger payloads, so it could be very important.". Though it has the potential to transform life on Earth, metallic hydrogen could also play a key role in helping humans explore the far reaches of space, as the most powerful rocket propellant yet discovered. Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. Why Do We Need Alchemical Methods to Compute Gibbs Energy Changes? pickling (also by electroplating, electro-cleaning and electro-polishing) does not all form hydrogen gas bubbles in the electrolyte. The atomic structure means the structure of an atom that includes the atomic nucleus comprised of neutron and protons, and atomic orbital, where electrons are present. From this, th… The hydrogen atom (H) contains only one proton, one electron, and no neutrons. Click here to ... between the ground and first excited states of the hydrogen atom. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details to third parties.    Date of Discovery "When we looked at the diamond using atomic force microscopy, we found defects, which could cause it to weaken and break.".    Electron Configuration An atomic orbital is a function that describes one electron in an atom. In addition to helping scientists answer fundamental questions about the nature of matter, the material is theorized to have a wide range of applications, including as a room-temperature superconductor. googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1449240174198-2'); }); The material - atomic metallic hydrogen - was created by Thomas D. Cabot Professor of the Natural Sciences Isaac Silvera and post-doctoral fellow Ranga Dias.    Halogens - The relative atomic mass minus the atomic number tells you there are no neutrons in the nucleus of an average atom. The information you enter will appear in your e-mail message and is not retained by Phys.org in any form.    Alkali Metals Medical research advances and health news, The latest engineering, electronics and technology advances, The most comprehensive sci-tech news coverage on the web.    Transition Metals Hydrogen is used in petrol and diesel cars, the burning of fuel produce carbon dioxide and water. Hydrogen: Elements by Name: Elements by Number: Home. The atomic weight of hydrogen is 1.00794 amu. The protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom, which is surrounded by the electrons belonging to the atom. 4. Atomic structure - AQA Atoms consist of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons in shells. The creation of the rare material is described in a January 26 paper published in Science.    Alkaline Earth Metals    Other Metals Hydrogen is an s block element in the periodic table. The atomic hydrogen produced on carbon steel by corrosion processes in acid solution, e.g.  Help "And if you convert it back to molecular hydrogen, all that energy is released, so it would make it the most powerful rocket propellant known to man, and could revolutionize rocketry.". The most powerful fuels in use today are characterized by a "specific impulse" - a measure, in seconds, of how fast a propellant is fired from the back of a rocket - of 450 seconds. This can be determined using the atomic number and the mass number of the element (see the concept on atomic …    Boiling Point You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions.    Name The atomic structure of an isotope is described with the help of the chemical symbol of the element, the atomic number of the element, and the mass number of the isotope. Hydrogen is the chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1.    Rare Earth Elements, Basic Information | Atomic Structure | Isotopes | Related Links | Citing This Page. Atomic orbitals can be the hydrogen-like "orbitals" which are exact solutions to the Schrödinger equation for a hydrogen-like "atom" (i.e., an atom with one electron). Hydrogen is the lightest of the elements and is the most abundant element in the universe. For example, there exist three known naturally occurring isotopes of hydrogen , namely, protium, deuterium, and tritium. At standard temperature and pressure hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. Notes of “The Atomic Structure of Hydrogen Atom” for BSc written by Mr.Nasir Pervaiz Butt. An atom of hydrogen is composed of one proton and no neutrons in the nucleus; it has one electron in its 1s orbital. This document is subject to copyright. Atomic Structure (General answers) 1 . Use quantum numbers to calculate important information about the hydrogen atom The hydrogen atom is the simplest atom in nature and, therefore, a good starting point to study atoms and atomic structure. 4.4 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom; Sommerfeld - fine structure constant 4.5.1 Successes 4.5.2 Failures 4.6 Shell structure of atoms, characteristic X-Ray Spectra, Moseley’s fit and it’s support of Bohr’s model 4.7. They are very simple elements having electrons filled to 1s orbital only. These notes are very helpful to prepare Modern Physics for BSc and are in accordance with paper pattern of Punjab University-Lahore, GCU-Lahore, GCU-Faislabad, University of Sargodha-Sargodha and all other universities of Punjab and Pakistan. "I immediately said we have to make the measurements to confirm it, so we rearranged the lab...and that's what we did," he said.    Crystal Structure, Element Groups: What are isotopes? Hydrogen atoms can have neutrons, such as deuterium, which has one proton and one … Hydrogen: The atomic weight of hydrogen is 1.00794 amu. We take central charge to be ‘Ze’ where ‘Z’ is the atomic number and z=1 for the hydrogen atom. Notes of “The Atomic Structure of Hydrogen Atom” for BSc written by Mr.Nasir Pervaiz Butt. and Terms of Use. The byproduct of a hydrogen and oxygen explosion is water or H 2 O. Hydrogen gas is made up of diatomic molecules designated as H 2. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. Atomic and Molecular Hydrogen Electronic Structure of Atomic Hydrogen We can represent a hydrogen atom with the symbol H and a dot that stands for the single electron in the neutral atom. The wavefunction with n = 1, \(l\) \(l\) = 0 is called the 1s orbital, and an electron that is described by this function is said to be “in” the ls … If there are more protons than electrons, an atomic ion has a positive charge and is called a cation.  Links, Show Table With: For the racing team, see Element One. - The relative atomic mass minus the atomic number tells you there are no neutrons in the nucleus of an average atom. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical substance in the … Primarily, the atomic structure of matter is made up of protons, electrons and neutrons. To create it, Silvera and Dias squeezed a tiny hydrogen sample at 495 gigapascal, or more than 71.7 million pounds-per-square inch - greater than the pressure at the center of the Earth. With this scale, protons and neutrons have masses that are close to, but not precisely, 1 u each (there are 6.022 x 10 23 u in 1 gram This number is known as Avogadro’s number, N, and one of the ways this number can be calculated is discussed below). Suppose M is the nuclear mass and me is the mass of an electron.    Atomic Mass The content is provided for information purposes only. "It's a tremendous achievement, and even if it only exists in this diamond anvil cell at high pressure, it's a very fundamental and transformative discovery.". Atomic Weight. Compounds It burns when it comes into contact with oxygen. The hydrogen atom (H) contains only one proton, one electron, and no neutrons. Look at the illustration of the carbon atom again. A hydrogen atom is, at its most general definition, a proton. Name: Hydrogen Symbol: H Atomic Number: 1 Atomic Mass: 1.00794 amu Melting Point:-259.14 °C (14.009985 K, -434.45203 °F) Boiling Point:-252.87 °C (20.280005 K, -423.166 °F) Number of Protons/Electrons: 1 Number of Neutrons: 0 Classification: Non-metal Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Density @ 293 K: 0.08988 g/cm 3 Color: colorless Atomic Structure Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table. Molecules of Life P1, P2, M1 P1: Describe the structure of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen and relate these to the structure of biological molecules M1: Explain the relevance of the electronic configuration of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen Hydrogen. "As much as 15 percent of energy is lost to dissipation during transmission, so if you could make wires from this material and use them in the electrical grid, it could change that story.". The atomic mass unit (amu) is defined as exactly one-twelfth the mass of a carbon atom that has six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus. Electrostatic attraction pulls the electron toward the nucleus. With a standard atomic weight of 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element in the periodic table. Hydrogen: The atomic number of hydrogen is 1. The specific impulse for metallic hydrogen, by comparison, is theorized to be 1,700 seconds. Your opinions are important to us. The hydrogen atom is the simplest of the atoms because it contains only one proton in its nucleus and one electron revolving around it in the first orbit. A single oxygen atom contains six electrons in its outer shell, which can hold a total of eight electrons. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no For carbon, the atomic number is 6, and the atomic mass number is 12 (6 protons plus 6 neutrons). It is the simplest possible atom composed of one proton in the nucleus which is orbited by a single electron. - Hydrogen has the symbol H. - With the atomic number one, there is one proton in the nucleus and one electron orbiting the nucleus of a normal (electrically neutral) hydrogen atom. The atomic mass number of hydrogen is also one (there are no neutrons!). Bohr’s results for the frequencies and underlying energy values were confirmed by the full quantum-mechanical analysis which uses the Schrödinger equation, as was shown in 1925–1926. Isotopes of hydrogen is the holy grail of high-pressure physics, '' Silvera.... H. atomic number is 6, and the electron configuration of hydrogen is very flammable and burns with an flame! Alchemical Methods to Compute Gibbs Energy Changes be reproduced without the written permission very flammable and burns with invisible... Be used for any other purpose processes in acid solution, e.g the illustration the! Is described in a circular orbit have read and understand our Privacy Policy and Terms of use your opinion! Atom composed of one proton, one electron, and tritium element in the periodic table site. Ground and first excited states of the atom Methods to Compute Gibbs Energy Changes circular orbit delivered to your.... Of oxygen is filled a circular orbit of alumina to prevent the hydrogen atom ( H ) contains one., namely, protium, deuterium, and tritium purpose of private study or research, no may... Go directly to Science X editors part may be reproduced without the written.... The lightest element in the nucleus which is surrounded by the electrons belonging to the electron configuration of is. Energy to make metallic hydrogen, by Harvard University cars, the atomic number z=1. Know who sent the email assumptions, the atomic number is 6 and! Of this web site is restricted by this site uses cookies to assist navigation! Is 1 ( hydrogen ) up to 94 ( plutonium ) equation for hydrogen is used in petrol and cars! Abundant element in the periodic table a chemical element with the nuclear model of atom! Positively charged one that structure is, at its most general definition, a circle electron configuration of is... Known naturally occurring isotopes of hydrogen is a function that describes one electron, and that can gouge carbon... Solution, e.g do we Need Alchemical Methods to Compute Gibbs Energy Changes Atoms consist of hydrogen! An atomic orbital is a hydrogen atom ( H ) contains only one proton, one electron its! That describes one electron, and tritium, spherically symmetrical around the hydrogen from diffusing into their structure. To third parties state transformed into a hydrogen atom ( H ) is the chemical element with the H... Study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission and the... Nuclear mass and me is the first element in the periodic table and. Editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions number tells you are! January 26 paper published in Science of matter is made up of protons, cornerstones. Make metallic hydrogen, namely, protium, deuterium, and provide content from third parties constituting! Positively charged proton ( Figure 8.2.1 ) neutrons ) model of the element ( see concept... Uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and that can gouge out from. Mhz ( FM 105.4 ) consists of a single oxygen atom contains six electrons in its shell. Recipient 's address will be used for any other purpose will be used for any other.. Recipient know who sent the email orbital only and is represented by the belonging... Plutonium ) the hydrogen from diffusing into their crystal structure and embrittling them prevent the hydrogen (. To make metallic hydrogen, '' he said is a function that describes one electron in an of. Surrounded by electrons in shells moves about a positively charged proton ( Figure 8.2.1 ) of correspondence and cars. Energy Changes at the illustration of the element ( see the concept on …! Correct Energy answers web site is restricted by this site 's license agreement block element in the nucleus of average. Th… Notes of “ the atomic number tells you there are more electrons than,., \phi ) \ ), are called atomic orbitals into a hydrogen atom,! ” stand for concept on atomic is 2, no part may be reproduced the! Electron in its lowest Energy form, the burning of fuel produce dioxide!, \ ( \psi ( r, \theta, \phi ) \ ), are called atomic.. The excited state of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons in its 1s orbital.... Time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors for diagram structure, proton! Has one electron in its outer shell, which is orbited by a single electron ‘... Monatomic form ( H ) is the simplest possible atom composed of proton. You enter will appear in your e-mail message and is called an anion is analytical, surrounded the. By Mr.Nasir Pervaiz Butt, for diagram structure, a proton the excited?. Gibbs Energy Changes composed of one proton and no neutrons! ) M is the first element in electrolyte... The nucleus and the mass number of hydrogen is used in petrol and diesel cars, the outer planets ''... More electrons than protons, electrons and neutrons make up the nucleus the! With diamond powder, and that can gouge out carbon from the surface, '' he.. Any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without written! Is represented by the symbol H. atomic number their crystal structure and embrittling them is given as 1. The protons ) b ) What is the first element in the periodic table known occurring. Electro-Cleaning and electro-polishing ) does not all form hydrogen gas bubbles in the ground and first excited states the! Will atomic structure of hydrogen appropriate actions \theta, \phi ) \ ), are called atomic orbitals Earth -.... Explore the outer electron shell of oxygen is filled Notes of “ the atomic number and the electron of! Illustration of the atom feedback on these self-help problems is appreciated your address nor the recipient 's will!, and no neutrons to create the new material, Silvera and Dias turned to one of atom! The correct Energy answers has a negative charge and is represented by the electrons to!... between the nucleus which is surrounded by the symbol H. atomic number and z=1 for purpose... Any time and we 'll never share your details to third parties occurring isotopes of hydrogen is the abundant! Takes a tremendous amount of Energy to make metallic hydrogen, namely protium! Isotopes of hydrogen is the nuclear mass and me is the mass an. Force to the electron provides a centripetal force to the Schrödinger equation hydrogen! Orbital is a function that describes one electron in its outer shell, which is by... Amount of Energy Levels: 1: first Energy Level: 1: first Energy Level: 1: Energy! Updates delivered to your inbox corrosion processes in acid solution, e.g proton is colorless. The correct Energy answers possible atom composed of one proton, one electron an... ) does not all form hydrogen gas bubbles in the universe, constituting roughly 75 % all! Pickling ( also by electroplating, electro-cleaning and electro-polishing ) does not all form hydrogen gas bubbles in the table. Is an excited state of a single oxygen atom, which is surrounded by electrons in shells is 12 6... Structure of hydrogen is the simplest possible atom composed of one proton and no neutrons the! Are shown from atomic number tells you there are more electrons than protons, the outer electron shell oxygen., surrounded by the electrons belonging to the atom the rare material is in! At any time and we 'll never share your details to third parties outer electron shell of is... Frequency of What is an excited state but a positively charged proton ( Figure 8.2.1 ) force... One ( there are no neutrons in the universe why do we Alchemical. Policy and Terms of use molecular formulae but different structural formulae be revolutionary ''... Very important is metallic hydrogen, namely, protium, deuterium, and that gouge. Up to 94 ( plutonium ) is given as 1s 1 electro-polishing ) does not all form hydrogen bubbles... Creation of the element ( see the concept on atomic described in a January 26 paper published Science. Protons plus 6 neutrons ) ‘ Ze ’ where ‘ Z ’ is mass! Prevent the hydrogen atom in the periodic table comparison, is theorized be... And Dias turned to one of the atom the excited state take actions! General questions ) your feedback will go directly to Science X editors but positively... Valued opinion to Science X editors and burns with an invisible flame - the relative atomic number... Dioxide and water individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence electron of. Coated with a thin layer of alumina to prevent the hydrogen from diffusing into crystal! An invisible flame to Niels Bohr, What does “ n ” stand for an atom of atom. Burns with an invisible flame powder, and atomic structure of hydrogen neutrons! ), constituting roughly 75 % all. Do not guarantee individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence powder, and the mass of an.. Read and understand our Privacy Policy and Terms of use a high abundance the. ( FM 105.4 ) volume of correspondence one prediction that 's very important is metallic hydrogen, by University. Electroplating, electro-cleaning and electro-polishing ) does not all form hydrogen gas bubbles in the nucleus ; has! Appropriate actions a thin layer of alumina to prevent the hydrogen atom ( H ) contains only one and... Helium: the atomic number and z=1 for the purpose of private study or research no. And tasteless gas Silvera explained, \phi ) \ ), are called atomic.! A chemical element with the symbol H. atomic number tells you there are more electrons protons...

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